With the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the bipolar system cased to exist. As a result, numerous political theories emerged to explain the changing international system.

Following the Cold War, the United States achieved a special global status because of its remarkable economic and military superiority and spent too much money and energy to take over the world leadership.

After the suicide bombings committed by 19 Arab terrorists on September 11, 2001, not only U.S politicians but also theoreticians of the "Unipolar System" inspired by Fukuyama and Huntington, considered this event as an evidence for the inevitability of clash between civilization and tried to consolidate a liberal new order based on American values. The main tenet of Huntington's theory of clash of civilizations is that the U.S. should be aware of the revival and challenging stance of world cultures and civilizations especially Islamic one and formulate its foreign policy on that basis. In his opinion, the revival of ancient civilizations and their politicization is a truth, but it could be also necessary and useful. "If we do not hate what we are not, we can not love what we are; without true enemies, there will be no true friends".

Huntington says that the political revival of "other" cultures is not a threat, rather it is an opportunity for consolidating and justifying the hegemonic world order led by the U.S.

Therefore, some believe that if even the September 11 events had not occurred, the U.S. military and foreign policy apparatus inspired by the theory of clash of civilizations created some pretexts for the securitization of the world and attacking Iraq.

Based on the Bush doctrine, the U.S. adopted a unitateral approach in its foreign policy, particularly after September 11 events. As long as this approach is efficient in attaining its global objectives, it will continue to use it. But, if as the case in Iraq, The U.S policies face domestic and international challenges, U.S statesmen will have no choice but adjusting this approach due to the fact that anti – hegemonic trends are intensifying in parallel with the U.S. efforts for consolidating its position. The September 11 events culminate these trends. However, anti-hegemonic trends and actions are not limited to terrorist acts. These actions originate from three sources:

1. States which behave based on the logic of state; such as Iraq under Saddam which followed an authoritarian logic, Serbs' behavior in Yugoslavia which was subject to a racial logic and Taliban's policies which were inspired by an extremist ideological logic.

2. Non – governmental actors such as terrorist groups.

3. Great powers which do not see the future developments of the international system in line with their own interests.

On the other hand, in addition to anti-hegemonic actions, the emergence of other political and economic great powers such as China and India and their willingness to play an increasing role in the international system, has faced the U.S. with serious challenges in the way of consolidating its leadership. Therefore, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, given spectacular developments and competition among powers, a new order has not yet been established and the international system is in its transition period.

Today, the U.S. feels itself uneasy about existing chaos in an international system where ideological, religious and ethnic sentiments have taken on supranational dimensions. What makes U.S. interests and power vulnerable is the unique and historical combination of opportunities and threats, therefore, if the U.S. is powerful, its limitations are also remarkable. Also, the U.S. unlike former powers, cannot easily impose its will by coercion. Today, some states are able to challenge the U.S.

On the other hand, chaos in the international system could be resulted from the new role of non – governmental actors.

Given that, the present book tries to study the U.S. foreign policy and its role in forming and consolidating the new world order, especially after the September 11 events.

The first article titled "Study of War – oriented Discourses in the United States", while presenting existing doctrines and theories governing the foreign policy of the Bush administration, argues that the White House does not hesitate to resort to violence to realize its goal.

The second article titled "Theoretical Foundations of the U.S. Foreign Policy after the September 11", examines the theoretical basis of the U.S. foreign policy based on the theory expounded by James Rosenau and its impact on the policy shifts in the U.S.

The third article titled "Decline of U.S Neo-conservatism", studies different identities in the U.S foreign policy based on Walter Mead's theory. It presents a comparative study between the foreign policy of the Bush administration and these identities.

The fourth article, "The U.S. Public Diplomacy", defines the U.S. public diplomacy a coherent and long – term plan for communicating a positive image of American culture and lifestyle. The author tries to provide a better understanding of this mechanism which is used especially against Iran.

The fifth article studies the U.S. foreign policy discourses in light of 2008 presidential campaigns. Iraq war has changed significantly the U.S. foreign policy discourse. The author tries to explain these changes and the stances of candidates in this regard.

The sixth article is the translated version of an article written by John Dumbrell, titled "The Bush Administration, U.S. Public Diplomacy and Iran". The author describes existing understanding of the interests in the current U.S. diplomacy dominated by neo-conservatism and new nationalism and concludes that there are no fundamental differences in the U.S foreign policy towards Iran.

The last article, "New American International Liberal Order" argues that the Greater Middle East scenario is a turning point in realizing the new world order led by the U.S.

Finally, I would like to acknowledge the assistance of all respected researchers who contributed to the publication of this book. I would like to especially thank Mrs Javan Shahraki who complied this publication.

Table of Content

 Study of War – Oriented Discourses in the United States/

Dr. Hassan Hosseini /

Theoretical Foundations of the U.S. Foreign Policy after the September 11/ Maryam Javan Shahraki /

- Decline of U.S. Neo- Conservatives/ Babak Noroozi/

- 2008 U.S. Presidential Election and the U.S. Foreign Policy Discourses/ Shani Hormozi /

- The U.S. Public Diplomacy/ Afsaneh Ahadi/

- The Bush Administration, U.S. Public Diplomacy and Iran/ John Dumbrell / Translated by Seyyed Javad Tahaii/

- New America International Liberal Order/

Dr. Hassan Hosseini/