This paper compares and contrasts Russian policy towards Iran in the early years of 20th century which led to the Anglo-Russia convention of 1907 with the Soviet Union’s policy towards Iran during Iran-Iraq war in 1980s.  It will explain Russia's involvement in the Great Game with British Empire in regard to expansion of its sphere of influences in Persia.  With this in mind, this paper will address both internal and external factors in this period which turned Russia and Britain's competition into an alliance – the Anglo-Russia entente.  The Soviet policy towards Iran will also be discussed from the time of the overthrown of the Shah’s regime and the establishment of the Islamic Republic up to mid-1987 when the Iran –Iraq war ended.   Based on this study, we will conclude that the Russian/Soviet policy towards Iran was constant and the spirit of expansionism lied at the very nature of their foreign policy.  They were aggressive when they were a hegemonic power in the region and they compromised with rivals when they were weak.


Keywords: Russia, USSR, Iran, Persia, Great Britain, Anglo-Russia Convention