The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference, held in New York, 3-28 May 2010, was of particular importance to the US, especially in view of its serious concerns for nuclear proliferation. In this context, the US perceived violation of the NPT by Iran’s nuclear activities was among its major concerns. For the US, the review conference provided a unique opportunity and occasion to draw international attention to the US non-proliferation concerns in general, and work towards further containment of Iran’s nuclear program in particular. To this end, the US Administration under Barack Obama has pursued an overall “containment” strategy, aiming at the twin, inter-related objectives of rehabilitation of the tarnished US image and credibility and effective exercise of the US leadership towards non-proliferation and strengthening of NPT  .   The present article undertakes to look into how Barack Obama and his Administration have fared in this regard since he took office in early 2009. The article explores, in particular, Obama’s campaign platform of change in foreign policy, and how his “defensive neo-realism” outlook differs from the “offensive neo-realism” of the George W. Bush era. While looking in relative detail into the US wide-ranging, extensive “containment” strategy towards the Iranian nuclear program, comprising both of measures and policies at bilateral and multilateral levels, the article concludes on a positive note. The engaging, proactive approach and conduct of both countries at the 2010 review conference – allowing the meeting to produce a consensus final outcome – could point to a possible more engaging, and mutually-beneficial, multilateral work and even cooperation in the future in the nuclear field .