Ambiguous, often contradictory, assessments of the achievements of NATO/ISAF operations in Afghanistan make it difficult to form a clear picture of the situation on the ground.  However, despite the rhetoric of politicians and military leaders who speak of ‘sticking it out’ till the job is done, there are unmistakable signals that the endgame has started.   The emphasis now is on fashioning an exit strategy that will justify the claim of ‘mission accomplished’. It is ironic that it is only now, with the dawning awareness that ‘a victor’s peace is impossible’, that the importance of involving the regional states is finally being recognized.  With the exception of Pakistan, which from the outset played a strategic role in Western-led operations, there was an implicit reluctance, amounting to a virtual ban, on cooperating with these states as equal partners. China, Russia and Iran were largely ignored, while the Central Asian states were regarded mainly as transit routes. Yet by geography, history, ethnic ties and culture, Afghanistan is an integral part of the region. The ‘neighbourhood’ states are neither unaware nor indifferent to what happens there. Before and since 2001 there have been regional initiatives aimed at promoting stability and development in Afghanistan. This paper gives an overview of the main initiatives, bilateral and multilateral which seek to promote the country’s re-integration into regional cultural, economic and security networks.