After holding parliamentary election in Palestinian territories on 2007, which led to the victory of Islamic Resistance Movement, differences between Hamas and Fatah entered unprecedented dimensions. Fatah movement was the only known group in Palestine until the late 1980s. Oslo peace accord (1993) was a watershed in the alignment of domestic intellectual forces in Palestine. Hamas was considered the main critic of policies adopted by Fatah and opposed its leaders and loyal forces. During a decade (1993 -2004). The death of Arafat represented another turning point in the history of Palestine. It provided other Palestinian groups with enough room for maneuvering of and Hamas succeeded to defeat Fatah in a completely democratic process.

After Hamas' victory, this movement faced a difficult situation due to the constant opposition of the head of Palestinian autonomous government and the suspension of financial aids provided before by the U.S. and EU. Political disputes, deteriorating security situation, unfavorable economic and social conditions and every day fighting give a grim picture of situation in the occupied territories. The United States, Israel and influential Arab countries showed, both overtly and covertly, their support of Mahmood Abbas, and took a sympathetic stance towards Fatah to exert more pressure on Hamas government.

Hamas has recognized a Palestinian state within 1967 borders, but does not accept the recognition of Israel. Fatah movement cannot be sure to be the winning party in the future election. The reasons which led to the defeat of Fatah are still valid. Although Hamas can continue its activities as a resistance movement, but at the present situation it cannot politically survive as a political faction within the autonomous government. The end of Hamas political activity will be the beginning of a new round of violence. As social and economic factors governing the Palestinian territories show the outbreak of the third Intifada does not seem likely, but disputes between the advocates of these two intellectual currents will continue in Palestine. Beyond this old confrontation, the permanent enemies of Palestine seem to have peace of mind.